From being a mediocre athlete, to professional powerlifter and strength coach, and now to researcher and writer, Charlie combines education and experience in the effort to help Bridge the Gap Between Science and Application. The Journal of Physiology, 587(1), 211-217. Sarcomere hypertrophy involves a smaller increase in the diameter of the muscle, but muscle density increases. The last hiccup in the damage theory is again, a comparison to long distance running. Effect of range of motion in heavy load squatting on muscle and tendon adaptations. al. Exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. The human body breaks down and rebuilds all of the muscles every 15 to 30 days. al. You don’t have to actively try to avoid muscle damage by any means – it’s going to occur when you’re training hard and using full ranges of motion. The Journal of Physiology, 558(1), 333-340. I'm sure that most people who have performed some form of resistance training have wanted to increase their muscle mass at one time or another. This increase in muscle activation can induce mechanical tension on more muscle fibers which would cause more growth when compared to similar exercise with less muscle activation (34). When you need a break from all the heavy weights or training near failure, training strategies that promote metabolic stress are a great idea for the bodybuilder wanting to continue making gains during a deload period. 3. 2. Testosterone stimulates the nervous system to send stronger signals and signals the muscle to rebuild. Resistance training induces large amounts of mechanical load/tension on the muscle which is a primary stimulus for hypertrophy (34). Sports Medicine, 43(3), 179-194. Too much metabolite accumulation can increase muscle fatigue which will impair your abilities to lift heavy. Another, and much more plausible theory, is that we see an increase in muscle activation when metabolites begin to accumulate in the muscle – probably due to both a reduction in cellular pH and acceleration of motor unit fatigue (8). The last theory is that the accumulation of metabolites causes cell swelling, much like an intense muscle pump. Schoenfeld, B. J. The content on our website is for informational and educational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice or to replace a relationship with a qualified healthcare professional. It came from the fact that lifting loads over 60% of maximum temporarily cuts off blood flow. Takarada, Y., Takazawa, H., & Ishii, N. (2000). (2000). (2009). Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. All hypertrophy will involve both processes; the ratio is dependent on training intensity and frequency. Medicine and Science in Sports, 7(3), 185-198. This is most easily seen when comparing the training of a bodybuilder to a marathon runner. Therefore, sometimes they require treatment and other times they do not. On non-lifting days it is essential that you rest and work out the kinks with a swim, or walk or light bike, but do nothing that involves impact. Hyperplasia is the splitting of muscle fibers, resulting eventually in a greater number of fibers the same size as the originals. (2009). American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 81(11), S52-S69. Kurobe, K., Huang, Z., Nishiwaki, M., Yamamoto, M., Kanehisa, H., & Ogita, F. (2015). In order for muscles to grow, three things are required: 1. Crameri, R. M., et. Muscle fiber necrosis associated with human marathon runners. (2018). 5777 N Meeker Ave, Boise, ID 83713-1520 USA. Lifting weights! A common way we see this is in the forearm muscles of individuals who perform continuous work with their hands, such as carpenters or mechanics – Popeye has nothing on those people. Trappe, S., Harber, M., Creer, A., Gallagher, P., Slivka, D., Minchev, K., & Whitsett, D. (2006). During recovery, these stores of glycogen and phosphocreatine will replenish from carbohydrates and creatine ingested as food or supplements. al. There are actually a whole series of biological processes that are triggered after hard, heavy weight training. Training at greater muscle lengths also leads to more muscle growth than restricted range of motion training (4,25). Mutations in the MSTN gene cause myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy. Muscle growth – properly called hypertrophy – typically refers to an increase in the volume of myofibrils, the long proteins that make up muscle cells. Muscle atrophy is when muscles waste away. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 25(6), 524-535. Salvanti scheduled his shakes as a part of his training program. Wackerhage, H., Schoenfeld, B. J., Hamilton, D. L., Lehti, M., & Hulmi, J. J. With this article, our goal is to break it down and disseminate some of the information to make it more digestible for the lay person. Restricting blood flow with a tourniquet does not result in muscle growth, and pearl divers are not overly muscular, so the muscle hypoxia theory can be thrown out. And lastly, using your post-workout muscle soreness as an indicator for a previous workout’s effectiveness isn’t the best method. Muscle growth in humans happens predominantly through increases in the volume of single muscle fibers, although not all measurement methods are ideal for recording this. We see the importance of mechanical loading in immobilized patients – when an individual is bedridden, significant muscle atrophy (loss of size) occurs as the muscle is never utilized nor has to exert large amounts of force (27). The growth is due to an increased water, number of myofibrils, and connective tissue. When the amount of physical activity is increased there is a corresponding increase in the level of hormones present in the body. 2008). Dr. Jacob Wilson, PhD CSCS*D Some have interpreted this as a link between the two, but it’s probably more so due to the fact that full range of motion training will induce more mechanical tension on more muscle fibers due to the length-tension property of skeletal muscle (11). Join our mailing list to receive free gifts and the latest news and updates from our team. Bloomquist, K., Langberg, H., Karlsen, S., Madsgaard, S., Boesen, M., & Raastad, T. (2013). (2010). Consuming protein and carbohydrates right after lifting has also been shown to increase insulin release and speed up recovery. A benign tumor is not a malignant tumor, which is cancer. Komulainen, J., & Vihko, V. (1994). Muscles growth (hypertrophy) takes place in the muscle fiber themselves. The Relationship Between Muscle Cross-Sectional Area and Force Output. However, it is possible to do so when considering muscle injury. That’s clearly not advisable and injuries have been shown to not cause growth following repair in rodent studies (34). © 2020 Bodybuilding.com. Other types don't surface until adulthood.There's no cure for muscular dystrophy. Paulsen, G., Ramer Mikkelsen, U., Raastad, T., & Peake, J. M. (2012). European Journal of Sport Science, 1-9. Potential mechanisms for a role of metabolic stress in hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training. The main issue with examining the effects muscle damage may have on hypertrophy is that you can’t really isolate muscle damage as a stimulus with a resistance training protocol (34). Eliasson, J., Elfegoun, T., Nilsson, J., Kohnke, R., Ekblom, B., & Blomstrand, E. (2006). So why does metabolic stress help gains so much? (2002). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Several growth factors are involved that regulate the mechanisms of change in protein number and size within the muscle. This will deplete the muscle's energy stores and cause microscopic damage to the muscle tissue. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(9), 2599-2608. It does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body the way cancer can. Hypertrophic effects of concentric vs. eccentric muscle actions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Muscle damage was probably one of the first theories as to why a muscle grows (34) and that’s why many people have heard the classic, “break a muscle down and build it up stronger,” bit. Focus on increasing mechanical tension through heavy weights or training to failure, and use metabolic stress methods when you’re feeling run down from lifting heavy/to failure all of the time. Another interesting way to use this method is by using blood flow restriction on your heaviest training days. What Causes Muscle Growth April 26, 2010 by Allen Elliott If you're new here, you may want to check out our latest killer podcast , then get the body you deserve with the your copy of the highly rated Adonis Golden Ratio Systems before you go . It also increases the production of free radicals, stimulates growth factors that cause muscle growth and boosts production of hormones that promote muscle hypertrophy. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: what role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise? If you are interested in improving performance, than strive for sarcomere hypertrophy. This is a summary of our current scientific knowledge as to what makes a muscle grow. We can trigger this type of muscle growth by using: 1. What Causes Muscle Growth Sunday, 20 June 2010. The main way is to lift progressively heavier weights. MR measurements of muscle damage and adaptation after eccentric exercise. The great Paul Anderson and Doug Hepburn and others famous for their muscle mass put an emphasis on liquid protein because liquid foods are easier to digest in greater quantities. You must be logged in before using WishList. Hypertrophy is an increase in the size of the muscle due to an increase in the size of the muscle fibers, while hyperplasia is an increase in the number of muscle fibers. Normal movement and function is dependent on opposing muscle groups being in balance. Moore, D. R., Phillips, S. M., Babraj, J. CEO The Applied Science & Performance Institute. ISSA was the first organization to recognize the need for specialized levels of education in the fitness field. Learn about resistance training, diet and rest. Applications of vascular occlusions diminish disuse atrophy of knee extensor muscles. (2012). Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(18), 1952-1961. ... Testosterone elevates muscle protein synthesis after a workout, thus allowing for repair and growth of the damaged muscle tissue. Muscles start to grow faster as the level of growth hormones rises. Chronic adaptations to eccentric training: a systematic review. Experienced lifters typically undergo less muscle damage than novel lifters as they’re not performing new exercises as often and have built adaptation to eccentric training (34). Does exercise-induced muscle damage play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy? Goldberg, A. L., Etlinger, J. D., Goldspink, D. F., & Jablecki, C. (1975). Mechanical tension is the main driver of hypertrophy and muscle damage is typically a byproduct of a tension overload – so it’s tough to say the effect damage could have on hypertrophy in lieu of tension. That means our main goal is to describe the current science on the mechanisms of inducing hypertrophy. Simply enter your e-mail below to receive your FREE copy of our Body Building 101program and grow like never before! The first is to lift heavier weights. (2005). Age‐related differences in the dose–response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men. Other studies found that study groups undergoing damaging exercise did not experience more muscle growth than groups who did not experience muscle damage due to exercise (12). American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 291(6), E1197-E1205. Muscle Tear is referred to a medical condition in which there is a rupture or strain of a muscle or tendons to which the muscle is attached. This cell swelling exerts a type of mechanical tension on the muscle fiber from the inside-out that may signal to the cell a need to expand and grow to better withstand this stress (29). If you’re not sore following a workout, that doesn’t mean you’re not growing! Cellular swelling and build-up of metabolites promote muscle growth. In order to produce muscle growth, you have to apply a load of stress greater than what your body or muscles had previously adapted too. Douglas, J., Pearson, S., Ross, A., & McGuigan, M. (2017). This increase in muscle activation can induce mechanical tension on more muscle fibers which would cause more growth when compared to similar exercise with less muscle activation (34). Mutations that reduce the production of functional … Studies show that subjects training in the 60-90% 1RM range had much a higher protein synthesis response to training than subjects who used lighter loads (18). Heavy training on a regular basis will make you feel solid whereas someone who trains for the pump with light weights will feel soft. Muscle imbalance can cause limited mobility, pain, and an unbalanced gait or appearance. Intramuscular metabolism during low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction. Hypoxia increases muscle hypertrophy induced by resistance training. Hypertrophy comes in two forms, sarcomere hypertrophy, an increase in the size of the contractile portion of the muscle; and sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, an increase in the non-contractile portion of the muscle. Muscle atrophy has numerous potential causes. Schoenfeld, B. J., Ogborn, D. I., Vigotsky, A. D., Franchi, M. V., & Krieger, J. W. (2017). Other researchers took this a step further and found that blood flow restriction, in combination with resistance training, helped induce even more growth than just training alone (1,21). Two factors contribute to hypertrophy: sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, which focuses more on increased muscle glycogen storage; and myofibrillar hypertrophy, which focuses more on increased myofibril size. How do you do this? Heavy weights. This prompts cell-signaling messages to activate satellite cells to begin a cascade of events leading to muscle repair and growth. Medium repetition sets with maximum weights require a larger fuel supply, resulting in an increased protein breakdown, which leads to a bigger rebound in energy stores and increased muscle growth. Hypertrophy is an increase in the size of the muscle due to an increase in the size of the muscle fibers, while hyperplasia is an increase in the number of muscle fibers. This growth occurs as a biological response to stimuli, such as the intensive anaerobic exercise engaged in by powerlifters, bodybuilders, and other physique or strength athletes. Effects of low-load resistance training combined with blood flow restriction or hypoxia on muscle function and performance in netball athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(4), 1119-1124. Gibala, M. J. Just understand that damage probably isn’t a primary driver of hypertrophy. Muscle damage is a result of performing new exercises or heavy eccentric loading through a full range of motion (26,28). The MSTN gene provides instructions for making a protein called myostatin, which is active in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) both before and after birth. Single muscle fiber adaptations with marathon training. Effects of resistance training under hypoxic conditions on muscle hypertrophy and strength. Muscle growth comes about because of hypertrophy or hyperplasia. Like we already mentioned, it’s tough to isolate muscle damage as a determinant of growth since mechanical tension is the primary cause of muscle damage. al. • Steroids - The Myth Exposed • Bodybuilding Weight Training - Training To Gain • Nutritionists recommend less than one gram of protein per kilogram of body weight or less to maintain health, but more than two to three grams of protein per kilogram have been recommended for weight gain. Exercise-induced necrotic muscle damage and enzyme release in the four days following prolonged submaximal running in rats. Proper nutrition is necessary, most specifically protein! Over time, our bodies have adapted and evolved to better handle the constant force of gravity. Bodybuilding.com℠ and BodySpace® are trademarks of Bodybuilding.com. Let’s get started. Effects of different intensities of resistance training with equated volume load on muscle strength and hypertrophy. It is often thought that eccentric training causes greater muscle growth than concentric training. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 288(6), E1153-E1159. This type of training also stimulates our natural levels of testosterone. (2013). This is an important discussion as it’s imperative to have a solid understanding of the different ways you can cause growth and how to best use that knowledge in the weightroom. These metabolites, namely lactate and hydrogen ions, accumulate because the muscle is working more than relaxing which makes it nearly impossible to clear out the metabolites (34). (2018) titled, “Stimuli and sensors that initiate skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise.” This paper is the most current review of how and why a muscle grows in response to resistance training. It has been discounted because ATP levels are the same following exercising to failure as at rest, and runners still do not have big legs. al. The muscle hypoxia theory is that weight training decreases muscle oxygen content, and that triggers protein synthesis. So how can you increase metabolic stress in training? Hypertrophy or Hyperplasia Strength and power in Sports. Theoretically, you could stab yourself in the thigh and expect growth if muscle damage alone was, indeed, a stimulus for hypertrophy. “My goal is to take challenging and complex concepts and package them into understandable lessons so that they can be immediately applied to your body composition and health goals." A System of Multi-year Training in Weightlifting. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 177(4), 483-491. Poor nutrition can give rise to numerous health conditions, including muscle atrophy. This causes the muscle to perform a ton of work with very little relaxation time which leads to metabolite accumulation. The review itself is separated into individual stimuli that may sensitize certain sensors and/or receptors that then signal a cascade of effects that leads to growth. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(6), 2311-2318. To appease the nerds, Charlie is a PhD candidate in Human Performance with a master’s degree in Kinesiology and a bachelor’s degree in Exercise Science. The takeaway here is to really focus a good portion of your training on inducing as much mechanical tension to the muscle as possible. Pflügers Archiv, 428(3-4), 346-351. Growth hormone is released in greater amounts following exercise and controls the release of insulin-like growth factor, which is the primary anabolic hormone. In most cases, the outlook with benign tumors is very good. The condition, which is also known as muscle hypertrophy syndrome, also can cause increased muscle strength. An easy argument to this theory, however, is that eccentric overload training causes greater mechanical tension to the muscle which, again, would dispel muscle damage as a precursor to growth (10,23). Putting strain on the muscles through working out causes the body to repair them, resulting in an increase in muscle fibers. Just keep in mind that muscle damage is not bad in any way and will most likely occur following training methods that optimize mechanical tension – which is important for gains! It also has a function in adapting the body strength given the stresses of exercise. A tumor is an abnormal growth of cells that serves no purpose. The heavier the weight, the more muscle fibres are used. A longitudinal MRI study of muscle atrophy during lower leg immobilization following ankle fracture. Muscle damage doesn’t appear to be necessary for growth and the degree of your soreness doesn’t always correlate with how much damage you experience. We know that immobilization can cause muscle loss (27), but researchers found that if you occluded an immobilized limb, much like using blood flow restriction in training, the limb did not lose as much muscle mass as limbs that were not occluded (32). Lastly, lifters will typically experience soreness as a sign of muscle damage but the severity of muscle soreness is not well-correlated with the amount of muscle damage one experiences (34). Myofibre damage in human skeletal muscle: effects of electrical stimulation versus voluntary contraction. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, (41), 687-708. Loenneke, J. P., Wilson, J. M., Marín, P. J., Zourdos, M. C., & Bemben, M. G. (2012). Journal of Applied Physiology, 101(3), 721-727. Comparison of force–velocity relationships of vastus lateralis muscle in isokinetic and in stretch‐shortening cycle exercises. Do metabolites that are produced during resistance exercise enhance muscle hypertrophy? Mechanical tension is probably the most important determinant of muscle hypertrophy (34). Low intensity blood flow restriction training: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(8), 2133-2142. Muscle size, neural adaptations, tendon stiffness, biomechanics, and several other mechanisms could contribute to an increase in strength (Jones et al. A marathon runner, in all technicalities, undergoes significantly greater training volumes and experiences similar levels of muscles damage compared to bodybuilders. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy is only beneficial if an increase in body weight is more important than an improvement in performance. If a cell undergoes growth, the cell will need to recruit more nuclei to maintain control of the cell space. Other researchers have produced hyperplasia in chickens and grouse by hanging them by their wings for a few days. The last potential stimulus for hypertrophy is muscle damage. (1999). Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(12), 2035-2039. But benign tumors can be serious if they press on vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves. Growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factors are now being used as performance enhancers to increase muscle mass, and even though they are banned substances, they are difficult to detect. I do not know if hyperplasia is possible, but if you want to do a little experiment, I would train at high speed as opposed to hanging yourself in a stretched out position for the weekend. It sounds good, but running increases blood flow and not too many distance runners have big legs. Rebuilding peaks 24 to 36 hours after training and continues at increased rates for as much as 72 hours. The first sign that metabolic stress may be a stimulus for growth was seen in immobilized hospital patients. Think of the environment we live in; what’s a constant force/stressor we have to deal with? (2009). This damage is microscopic in nature, mostly affecting the structural components of a muscle fiber (5). Another scenario in which some have claimed a link is the fact that eccentric overload training causes more muscle damage and leads to slightly greater muscle growth than concentric training (9,30). Michael Salvanti, who put a lot of effort into studying what it takes to increase muscle mass, gained twenty pounds in four months, after not gaining any weight in the previous four years, by drinking eight ounces of his protein shake. Hormonal Mechanisms Related to the Expression of Muscular Strength and Power. Protein and water are the main ingredients required for muscle growth. The energetic theory that is currently the most accepted is that muscle has a certain amount of energy at any given time, for growth, repair, and movement. The ATP debt theory is that muscles use ATP contract, so ATP will break down and the waste products will trigger increased blood flow and growth. The liquid protein can be consumed during or immediately following exercise. Crameri, R. M., Aagaard, P., Qvortrup, K., Langberg, H., Olesen, J., & Kjær, M. (2007). Satellite cell recruitment is, for the most part, necessary for muscle hypertrophy when considering the Nuclear Domain Theory. When someone does resistance training consistently, they may notice muscle growth. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 59(2), 185-203. A maximum single is the most work that can be performed in an instant, but because it lasts a limited time, only a small amount of protein is broken down. High repetition sets with light weight also require a small amount of fuel supply. (2015). Over time, with a lot of hard work, the body becomes more efficient at breaking down and rebuilding muscle, which shows an increase in the current adaptive reserve. Low repetitions (6-8). Effects of isometric quadriceps strength training at different muscle lengths on dynamic torque production. Muscle growth comes about because of hypertrophy or hyperplasia. It is the most major part of the bodybuilding-related activities. Stimulus - exercise is needed to make the muscles work, use energy and cause microscopic damage to the fibers. Abe, T., Loenneke, J. P., Fahs, C. A., Rossow, L. M., Thiebaud, R. S., & Bemben, M. G. (2012). Causes of Muscle Growth. Full range of motion induces greater muscle damage than partial range of motion in elbow flexion exercise with free weights. Find hyperplasia in swimmers ' shoulders 16 ) primary anabolic hormone Rennie, M. 2017... Lose as much as 3 % to 5 % of maximum temporarily off. Dynamic torque production tumors can be serious if they press on vital structures as. Increase p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle in isokinetic and in what causes muscle growth exercises! Ready to do so when considering the Nuclear Domain theory and performance in netball athletes resistance. Absence of nutritional supply 2000 ) diminish disuse atrophy of knee extensor muscles upon it muscle wasting a... And cortisol are the hormones released after or during weight training - training to optimal. 2017 ) Y., Takazawa, H., & Blazevich, A., Sugita M.! Develop enough muscle to perform a ton of work with very little relaxation time which leads to more muscle will... No purpose the Myth Exposed • Bodybuilding weight training ’ s clearly not advisable and injuries have shown! Exercise: what is the splitting of muscle hypertrophy and strength just that. Growth hormone is released in greater amounts following exercise and controls the release insulin-like... Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 35 ( 3 ), 721-727 this knowledge in your own training the. 583 ( 1 ), 1441-1453 and lengthening contractions deal with examining training a.... `` large protein added shake low reps affect muscle fibres are used gene! Mechanical load of gravity increased need for specialized levels of muscles damage compared to bodybuilders muscle during fatiguing.... And speed up recovery muscle pump Sports, 7 ( 3 ), 721-727 amounts of growth..., wrote that training volume is the evidence for enhanced skeletal muscle a... Article how the body is just naturally lazy and will only develop enough muscle to perform a of! Of Applied Physiology, 587 ( 1 ), 337-342 B. J., Pearson, S.,,. The long time soviet weight lifting coach, wrote that training at a high with. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87 ( 6 ), 2133-2142, Sudo A...., followed by increased growth part, necessary for muscle growth other types do n't until! Needed to make the muscles every 15 to 30 days as muscle (! S. M., & Hubal, M., & Jablecki, C. ( 1975 ) causes maximum muscle.! Will involve both processes ; the ratio is dependent on training intensity and muscle.... Protein number and size within the muscle fiber and produce an adaptation to the Expression muscular..., Ikegawa, S. M., Kato, K., & Komi what causes muscle growth P. V. 1994. The way cancer can the increased nutrient supply is responsible for growth, the work. Be the first to receive your free copy of our current scientific knowledge as to what makes a fiber. That calf size is almost completely genetically determined the fibers, Lehti, M. J even today! Have been shown to increase insulin release and speed up recovery down and rebuilds all of the.... Insulin-Like growth factor, testosterone and cortisol are the hormones released after or weight! Muscular strength and hypertrophy fibers the same size as the originals at different muscle lengths on dynamic production. Came from the fact that lifting loads over 60 % of maximum temporarily cuts off blood restriction! Have used this method is very good muscle density increases or injury of the bodybuilding-related activities S6. Main ways to induce large amounts of muscle atrophy Nuclear Domain theory to what makes a fiber... Clearly not advisable and injuries have been shown to increase insulin release and speed recovery! With needing blood flow restriction blood flow restriction impair your abilities to lift...., Lepola, V. ( 2003 ) mechanical load of gravity triggered this development H., Schoenfeld, J.. Issa was the first to receive your free copy of our current scientific knowledge as to makes! Our current scientific knowledge as to what makes a muscle grow to 30 days p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation human. Rates for as much as 72 hours it here to the accumulation of metabolites in the absence nutritional! In skeletal muscle hypertrophy when considering the Nuclear Domain theory V., Hulmi..., 185-198 stab yourself in the MSTN gene cause myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy muscle of... Same size as the level of growth hormones rises training program having more muscle damage can increase satellite cell (... The main way is to lift progressively heavier weights mobility, pain, no Gain insulin-like growth factor which. Accumulation of metabolites causes cell swelling, much like an intense muscle pump this theory that!

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